The different phases that are part of the biological cycle of the vine are the following:
This phase is considered the birth of the vine, it takes place in March with the arrival of spring, at which time the first shoots begin to appear, giving rise to the beginning of the vine cycle.
It happens during the months of April and May, with the emergence of the first leaves. It is a key moment for the vine, where the molecules of sugars and acids are formed in the leaves, which will determine the quality of the grape, and therefore of the wine.
During the month of May, the practice of “espergurar” is usually carried out, where only the shoots that are going to be necessary are left on the pruning thumbs, in order to favor their growth.
At the end of May, beginning of June, the flowering of the vine begins. It is the moment in which the embryos of the flowers appear, which will give rise to the grains of the grapes that will form clusters. It is a critical moment for the plant, where special attention must be paid to weather conditions. It is not a good time for rain, being sun what it needs most to feed and grow.
The flowering determines the vintage, as well as the volume of the harvest. If the vine flowers early, you will have an early harvest.
At the end of June, beginning of July, the flowers turn into fruits, green in color due to their large load of chlorophyll. In this phase, if the vine is considered to be very loaded, what is known as "green harvesting" is carried out, consisting of eliminating the bunches that are considered to be left over, thus favoring the growth of the bunches that remain.
This phase takes place during the summer, it is the moment in which the grape changes its color, until it reaches its final shade. In the case of white grapes such as Muscatel, the color changes from green to golden-yellow. In the case of red grapes such as Giró, the grapes acquire a pink color that gradually darkens until it reaches its final shade.
It should be noted that during the month of August, thinking about the harvest, another thinning is usually carried out to equalize the level of maturation of the different clusters.
From August to October, the maturation of the grapes takes place, whose peak coincides with the beginning of the harvest, when the winemaker considers that it is at its optimum point of maturation. In this phase the grape acquires a sweeter flavor, because during the process of photosynthesis the acids of the leaves decrease, increasing the sugar content.
The harvest It is the beginning of the end of the cycle of the vine, it is the moment in which the grape has the perfect degree of maturation, and in which it is removed from the vine to take it to the winery and begin the winemaking process.
It usually takes place between the months of September and October, it is the apotheosis moment of the vine, when what has been cared for all year is harvested.
After the harvest, with the beginning of autumn and the arrival of winter, the vine begins to enter a process of vegetative standstill, a phase of lethargy that will last until March. During the months of January and February, the pruning, cleaning all shoots before starting a new cycle of the vine.
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